Using Ubuntu Linux might sound too scary and difficult for most of you, but once you become aware of the simplest and most common commands here, you will understand that there’s nothing either complex, or frightful. On the contrary, many beginners, eventually, became real experts in Linux OS. However, to achieve the same goal, it is important for you to know the main commands to operate and use the Linux Ubuntu in a most beneficial way. Today, we are about to discuss the Apt-get & apt-cache command line, which is a package management utility for the Linux Ubuntu system. Note that the GUI version for the apt-get command is actually the Synaptic Package Manager. And our tutorial will show you 15 different illustrations that will teach you how to use the two commands – apt-get and apt-cache.
List all installed packages
howopensource@esprimo:~$ dpkg-query -l | more Desired=Unknown/Install/Remove/Purge/Hold | Status=Not/Inst/Conf-files/Unpacked/halF-conf/Half-inst/trig-aWait/Trig-pend |/ Err?=(none)/Reinst-required (Status,Err: uppercase=bad) ||/ Name Version Architecture Description +++-====================================-==============================-============-============================================================== ii acl 2.2.51-8 i386 Access control list utilities ii acpi 1.6-1 i386 displays information on ACPI devices ii adduser 3.113+nmu3 all add and remove users and groups ii alsa-base 1.0.25+3~deb7u1 all ALSA driver configuration files ii alsa-utils 1.0.25-4 i386 Utilities for configuring and using ALSA ii apache2 2.2.22-13+deb7u4 i386 Apache HTTP Server metapackage ..................................................
The full list of the packages that is currently available
howopensource@esprimo:~$ apt-cache pkgnames | more account-plugin-yahoojp ceph-fuse dvd+rw-tools e3 gnome-commander-data ..................................................
Packages for searches with particular keywords to be used
With this useful command you can easily find the package, when you do not know its name. All you need to do is to input the particular keyword, when the apt-get command will show you the list of all the packages that correspond to this particular keyword.
In case you have apt-file installed on your Ubuntu Linux, you might also search for the package by using the following configuration files.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ apt-file search apache2 apache2: /etc/apache2/apache2.conf apache2: /etc/apache2/conf-available/charset.conf apache2: /etc/apache2/conf-available/localized-error-pages.conf apache2: /etc/apache2/envvars apache2: /etc/apache2/magic ..................................................
How to put on display the main information for each specific package?
howopensource@esprimo:~$ apt-cache show lbreakout2 Package: lbreakout2 Priority: optional Section: universe/games Description-en: ball-and-paddle game with nice graphics lbreakout2 is a game similar to the classics breakout and xboing, featuring a number of added graphical enhancements and effects. You control a paddle at the bottom of the playing-field, and must destroy bricks at the top by bouncing balls against them.
How to show the dependency of each package?
howopensource@esprimo:~$ apt-cache depends lbreakout2 lbreakout2 Depends: libc6 Depends: libpng12-0 ..................................................
How to show the statistic for Cache with the apt-cache command?
howopensource@esprimo:~$ apt-cache stats Total package names: 60913 (1,218 k) Total package structures: 102876 (5,761 k) howopensource@esprimo:~$
How to update the package storage with the apt-get command update?
When you use the apt-get update command, you might synchronize the package index files once again by adjusting them to the source they belong to. You can retrieve the package index from a file, which is situated in the /etc/apt/sources.list.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get update Hit http://extras.ubuntu.com utopic Release.gpg Hit http://extras.ubuntu.com utopic Release Hit http://extras.ubuntu.com utopic/main Sources Hit http://security.ubuntu.com utopic-security Release.gpg
How to install a package with the apt-get command?
This illustration shows an installation of a package with a name lbreakout2.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get install lbreakout2
How to perform the upgrading of all the available packages?
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get upgrade Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done 0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. howopensource@esprimo:~$
How to perform the upgrading of a specific package?
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get install lbreakout2 --only-upgrade ..................................................
How to remove a particular package with the apt-get command?
This illustration shows the removal or full deletion of the package lbreakout2, but in case you aim to eliminate all the configuration files of this package, you should apply the purge feature by using the apt-get command. See it now. Also, it is possible to apply a combo of several commands, which we showed above.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get remove lbreakout2 Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages will be REMOVED: lbreakout2 0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 1 to remove and 0 not upgraded. After this operation, 785 kB disk space will be freed. Do you want to continue? [Y/n] howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get purge lbreakout2 ..................................................
How to download a particular package and store it in Current Working Directory?
The example shows the command that will download a package, which is named lbreakout2 directly to your present working directory.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get download lbreakout2 Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ utopic/universe lbreakout2 amd64 2.6.4-3 [242 kB] Fetched 242 kB in 0s (658 kB/s) howopensource@esprimo:~$
How to empty the space in the disk, which is full of files from retrieved packages?
This illustration shows the emptying of the disk space with the apt-get command during the retrieving package process. Bear in mind that you can also get the benefit of the feature autoclean, too.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get clean howopensource@esprimo:~$ howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get autoclean Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done howopensource@esprimo:~$
How to remove the packages with the autoremove parameter?
When we apply the parameter autoremove in a combo with apt-get command, we can eliminate all the packages, which were previously installed for the dependency of other packages, but they are not necessary or put into usage any more.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get autoremove lbreakout2
How to show the changelog in a package?
This illustration shows the command for downloading the changelog for the lbreakout2 package and it also shows a sensible-pager on your Linux-based desktop.
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get changelog lbreakout2 Get:1 Changelog for lbreakout2 (http://changelogs.ubuntu.com/changelogs/pool/universe/l/lbreakout2/lbreakout2_2.6.4-3/changelog) [13.9 kB] Fetched 13.9 kB in 0s (56.6 kB/s) howopensource@esprimo:~$
How to see the dependencies, which were broken, with the feature check?
howopensource@esprimo:~$ sudo apt-get check Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done howopensource@esprimo:~$
And finally if you are wondering what is lbreakout2 that was used in most of examples. It is an classic ball and paddle game with nice graphics and sound effects. It is fun and nice to play for a few minutes daily when you need rest and need to clear your mind.